ultra high density mango plantation south africa

I am currently half way through planting the field. of plants in one acre is about 500 and the trees bear the fruit in the 3rd year itself due to the continuous grafting and restricting the height of the tree to 6ft. I had a booth at the local Waipa Mango Festival where i displayed posters and talked about the project. next, the field was laid out with ten rows and thirty trees per row at an 8′ x 10′ spacing, each row is 250′ long. Block or high density plantings provide natural protection from wind, but avoid planting trees too close together because they will compete with each other for light, water and nutrients. However, by the end of the second year, the trees are between four and six feet tall and the canopy is filling out. wire strainers it make easy to tension the wire. I also had two visits to the local high school’s agriculture program, where I did a grafting workshop with the students as well as a discussion on sustainable agriculture and pruning fruit trees for small spaces. The low trees are managed completely from the ground. One tour was with a local high school’s agriculture program and one group was a mix of people from USDA and NRCS. You can get dashehari mang… In Hawaii, mangoes sell for $1.00/lb to $2.50/lb, depending on the season, making it a reasonable expectation to gross $20,000 per acre. In UHDP mango plantation, the no. The scaffold branches will provide the main shape and support for the canopy. Once a row was back filled, 1/2″ black tubing was laid down and covered with three foot wide black ground cover. But, once the tree fills in the space on the trellis, no more trellis clips are required. I will continue to have farm tours for any interested farmers and continue looking for outreach opportunities. They visit farms to volunteer and get hands on experience, this year my farm will be one of the participating farms. • In Dashehari mango, the average yield in high density … My videos have 6,000 views over the last 6 months. Cultivation practices for mango in ultra high density. If you need any information on mango farming you can reach us on arifa@ar4mangoes.com. Through the group, I have also been able to reach people all over the world. Here is where it is very important to keep up with every flush of new growth. Irrigation in Mango Farming Seven pairs of treated pine posts were used for each row. The first year of pruning and training was focused on developing the main trunk and the scaffold branches that provide the main structure and support of the tree. Once this year’s field is planted I will have the data needed to do a detailed cost analysis of the UHDP vs. open tatura trellis system vs. traditional orchard layout. The standard mango orchard takes seven to ten for the trees to reach maximum production. This is simply because of the number of trees in the high density systems, 600 trees per acre versus 50 trees per acre. The use of drip irrigation and Fertigation (the use of irrigation to distribute nutrients) allow for a more efficient use of inputs. This year I am opening up my farm to the nonprofit organization GoFarm Hawaii; this group trains aspiring farmers in the classroom and field. NAHM-DAWG-MAI, 820_95 FRESH CUT MANGO FRUITS: EVALUATION OF EDIBLE COATINGS, 820_96 THE PRODUCTION OF CANNED MANGO SLICES IN SYRUP FROM MANGIFERA INDICA LINN. UHDP leads to mango orchards attaining their full potential in 3-4 years. Where it was first developed is hard to pinpoint, but India, Australia, Israel, South Africa, and China are a few of the countries that utilize this method for mango production. Fruits are medium sized having strong and pleasant flavour. Tropical fruits is in high demand and Hawaii’s farmers are trying to meet the need. I did an interview for KKCR Kauai community radio, talking about the mango loa project and the advantages of high density fruit farming. Report. A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH POSTHARVEST IMPLICATIONS, 820_32 EFFECT OF AMINO ACID ON PANICLE LENGTH AND FRUIT SET OF TREE MANGOES (CULTIVAR TOMMY ATKINS) IN SEMI ARID OF NORTH OF MINAS GERAIS, 820_33 COMPARISON OF SEED GERMINATION IN MANGIFERA INDICA L.'HADEN' AND 'MANILA' VARIETIES, 820_34 COMPARATIVE RELATIVE GROWTH RATE OF SEEDLINGS OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. With the field prepped and laid out, it is time to start planting. The open tatura trellis system is a “V” style trellis with a 20 inch “open” gap between posts, this is an adaptation from the original design, and it allows the farmer to walk in between the rows. This project was focused on mangoes, but here in Hawaii we can grow all tropical fruits and these two systems have increased the production with other fruits. Quick Note: You can buy Alphonso Mango plant from here. When grafting trees, it becomes essential to have the graft point below 18 inches, preferably lower, or the tree will be too tall to get the branches trained along the first wire. Pruning in the second year was a lot more intensive, taking 1 to 3 minutes per tree or 6 to 8 hours for the entire field, 4 to 6 times per year. We also demonstrated the open Tatura trellis field, going over the installation of the trellises and the basics of the open Tatura trellis system. Ultra High Density Plantation in Mango. The trees take 0 to 1 minute to prune and the entire 1/2 acre can be completed in two to three hours. Under the ultra high density method, the mango trees will be planted closer together with lesser space left than in the high density and normal method of cultivation. Ground anchors are required for each end of the rows that will be the main support for carrying the weight of the trees and fruit to come. The first goal is to set a single trunk at 3 feet. The next step was to back fill the holes adding a half pound of 16-16-16 and half pound of neem cake to each hole. If we can extend the project for another three years that will show production, we will be able to evaluate the yields and quality of fruit these two systems produce. There are many different ways to train trees along a trellis. I had my first field day in May, where I presented my project and hosted a grafting workshop to 25 attendees, which for Kauai Island is a pretty large number. The idea behind the increased density and the short trees is to lessen the demand on labor, while maximizing the use of available land and resources. Hawaii is in the process of rebuilding its agricultural industry. Ultra high density plantation (UHDP) methods and the open tatura trellis system (OTTS) is the direction that the world’s tropical fruit farming is heading. The objective of the Mango Loa project is to improve the production and quality of Hawaii’s mango industry by demonstrating and comparing two new innovative orchard management systems for tropical fruits, these are the ultra high density plantation and the open Tatura trellis system. This was another great opportunity to meet farmers throughout the state, where I was able to display a poster of the project and talk about the things I’ve been doing. AgricultureDotPk. A series of trials are being carried out to standardize package of practices including evaluation of mango … Traditionally, mango orchards were planted at a density of 50 trees per acre, with a spacing of 25 feet by 25 feet. This project evaluates the costs of installation per acre, the expected return on investment, potential increase of production, labor demands, and orchard maintenance. I am currently scheduled to be a presenter at both events later this year. I have been in contact with people from Florida and Arizona, India, Thailand, and Australia about my project and the movement towards ultra high density. However, both systems report yields of 8 to 12 tons per acre. the most developed trees in this field are now at this stage. The results of some of these trials have shown that mango can be profitably grown under Jalgaon conditions with improved agricultural practices and the puree and concentrate produced by aseptic processing is of world class quality. Whereas, the otts training is along the wire, the pattern has already been determined, just have to do the work tying down branches. “Common” mango seedlings take from 10 to 18 months to get big enough for grafting. All work is done from the ground, everything is done with simple hand tools, and in India they say that one person can manage up to 10 acres by his or herself. The most useful outreach tool at this point has been Facebook, where I created a group “The Mango Loa Project”, and have been chronicling its’ progress. In the case of the trellises, it provides the framework to then cover the entire orchard with bee netting, which will keep out fruit flies as well as birds, and it is the netting that will ultimately do the most to increase production. Bombay Green (Malda) This is one of the earliest varieties of North India, harvested by the end of June. Increases productivity up to 2-3 times; Reduces water used for irrigation up to 50 %; Increases fertilizer uptake by plants when fertigation is practised. This will go a long way in producing a comprehensive report of the ultra high density plantation and the open Tatura trellis systems. If the production of these two systems are about the same, then I would be more inclined to moving forward with the uhdp system, because of the difference in the cost of installing the trellises. There was 28 participants for this field day, with over half being farmers. COGSHALL) ACCORDING TO AGRONOMIC CONDITIONS, 820_88 SAPBURN MANAGEMENT FOR IMPROVING MANGO FRUIT QUALITY, 820_89 METHYLCYCLOPROPENE (1-MCP), A NEW APPROACH FOR EXPORTING 'KENT' MANGOS TO EUROPE AND JAPAN, 820_90 EFFECT OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE ON THE SHELF LIFE OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA LINN.) Fruits are medium sized with pleasant flavour, sweet and fibrous pulp. In order to get the most from this project, it will need a second part, the first three years of production. Tree spacing will determine how many trees will be needed. Mango trees are vigorous upward growing trees. One end of the wire was attached directly to the chain on the ground anchor and the other end of the wire was attached to a wire strainer that is attached to the ground anchor and this is to tension the wire once all is set up. Polyembrionic seeds are also clonal, in that they are identical, which will give the orchard uniformity because all the seedlings are the same. A state of the art 140 t/day capacity mango processing plant was established in 1997. Some of the work can be started in the nursery. With the help of this, you will be able to plant around 70 mango plants per acre, which is considered as avg mango plantation per acre. Improving Hawaii’s mango industry by introducing and comparing two innovative techniques that have increased yields and quality of the fruit while improving on efficiency and management of the orchard. Sadly, two events scheduled last year were canceled due to the severe flooding on the North side of the island that forced the cancellation of the mango festival and a scheduling conflict interfered with the Kauai farm and garden fair. The ultra high density plantation (UHDP) method has been in use for around a decade. Since then, Australia has dedicated a lot towards research and trials to improve and adapt the open Tatura trellis system for tropical fruits. The first pruning is at the height of or a couple inches below the first wire. the first lateral branches are tied down on the first wire, the leader is on the second wire, trellis clips and vinyl tape are used to attach the branches to the wire, the graft point is too high and the branch cannot be tied to the first wire, leaving the tip of the lateral branch untied and upward facing is important for proper growth. The otts field has been the opposite, establishing the trees along the wire is a lot more time consuming in its’ first year. COGSHALL), 820_54 AMINO ACIDS ON MANGO YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY AT SUBMEDIO SÃO FRANCISCO REGION, BRAZIL, 820_55 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ABOUT TOMMY ATKINS PRODUCTION OUTDOORS AND UNDER PLASTIC GREENHOUSE IN SOUTHERN MAINLAND SPAIN, 820_56 HIGH DENSITY PLANTATION IN MARGINAL SOILS AND PROCESSING OF MANGO, 820_57 GROWTH AND FRUITING OF SOME MANGO CULTIVARS UNDER HIGH DENSITY PLANTATION IN ARID CONDITIONS OF GUJARAT (INDIA), 820_58 MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR INDIAN MANGO CULTIVARS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE, 820_59 MINI REVIEW: FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH MANGO MALFORMATION DISEASE, 820_60 MALFORMATION PRESENCE IN MANGO SEEDLING TREES CULTIVATED WITHIN INFECTED EGYPTIAN ORCHARDS, 820_61 INTERACTION OF THE MANGO BUD MITE, ACERIA MANGIFERAE, WITH FUSARIUM MANGIFERAE, CAUSAL AGENT OF MANGO MALFORMATION DISEASE, 820_62 MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF MANGO FRUITS TO FUNGAL ATTACK, AND THEIR MODULATION BY POST-HARVEST HANDLING AND STORAGE, 820_63 POST HARVEST DISEASE MANAGEMENT IN MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CV. 1 3/4 inch barbed staples were used to attach the wire to the posts. B. Krishna, A.N. The sub-lateral branches are established with each new flush, every 6 to 10 inches, and this is where most of the flowers and subsequent fruit will develop. Advantages of Ultra high density planting system of mango In traditional farming about 70 trees are planted in one acre of land and the growth of tree is very big. Stand alone UHDP mango fields in India have reported harvests of 8 tons per acre, over double the global average of 3.5 tons per acre. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. But, this number differs in ultra-high density mango tree plantation where the distance between mango … It is pretty clear that this generation of consumers do not like chemicals sprayed on their fruits and vegetables. Because of that, the focus is mainly on the cost of production, installation of these two techniques, and the demand on labor to implement these orchard management styles. 5 years ago | 1.8K views. HIGH DENSITY PLANTATION IN MARGINAL SOILS AND PROCESSING OF MANGO. Another method of pruning utilizes a tractor attachment with rotating blades which allows for mechanical pruning; this method is very fast and efficient, but also very cost prohibitive. The Indian ultra high density mango farming video shows trees that appear to be young. After planting, mangoes develop a strong taproot that can extend to 6 m deep. So ultra high density mango cultivation can be more helpful for the farmers. There is a lot of interest for high density planting and at the moment my project is the largest trial in the islands. At this point, the terminal bud is removed, which will force multiple buds to flush, thickening the canopy. The work is easy, but it takes time to selectively prune and thin out new growth. Mango farmers have been taken through ultra-high density plantation (UHDP) technology to improve yields and the quality of mangoes produced in the country. In essence, its a trade off in the demand on labor between pruning and harvesting. Eight grafts were planted in normal density and 216 grafts were planted in high density employing about 0.162 ha area for each density. When the leader reaches the next wire, it is topped, and with the new growth, a new leader is established and again branches are trained to grow laterally on each side of the leader, all other branches are removed. High tensile wire is stronger and resists stretching like soft wire and is the preferred wire for trellises. In Australia, farmers have been using this system for about a decade, and have reported mango harvests as high as 20 tons per acre, doubling the production of the stand alone UHDP field. 5:11. The first wire on the trellis is 24 inches from the ground. Low trees will allow for easier inspection and application of chemicals. Suckers appearing below the graft point or out of placed are removed as soon as possible. Through trials done in India and Australia, we know that mango trees thrive under heavy pruning and aside from lessening the demand on labor, there was also an increase in yield and quality of the fruit, increasing production to 8 to 12 tons per acre, while shortening the time to maximum production from 7 to 10 years to three years. The pulp is deep yellow, firm and fiber less. So, there is real incentive to raising and grafting your own trees. The mango plantation has the look and feel of a tea garden - short plants regularly pruned. Try this to achieve high yield with low land and great quality mangoes with proper pruning every year. Planting distance depends on the growth of the cultivar and can range from 12 x 12 m apart to 2.5 x 2.5 m in high-density mango orchards. The first wire was set 24 inches from the ground and 18 inches apart between wires. Current trend where you have sufficient water facility is to go for ultra density mango plantation. high density mango orchard. Open Tatura trellis field. In 2006, farmers in North Queensland, the tropical area of Australia, began adapting the trellis to tropical fruits to try and protect their orchards from severe storms, after a tropical cyclone had devastated the fruit orchards in the area. India, where these techniques are being developed, report that using these methods enable one farmer to manage as much as 10 acres of mango. responsibility over the next year is to train and prune the trees to get the desired shape. At the end of year one, the trees were 4 to 6 feet tall, the main trunk and scaffold branches are developed and the canopy of the tree is beginning to fill in. Harvesting will be conducted by hand reducing the risk of damage and improving the quality of the fruit. We need more trials. This will set you back about two months of growing time and if you don’t prune back two sections, the tree will get too tall. In order to address this legitimate concern, as farmers we have to incorporate new innovative techniques to reduce our reliance on chemicals. Pruning in these two systems is more time consuming and labor intensive, over the first three years, than pruning in the standard mango orchard. Field preparation began by hiring a bulldozer to clear the field of brush and grass. The uhdp field, in the first two years of pruning and training has been fast and easy. Six varieties were selected for propagation; four commercial varieties (Rapoza, Nam Doc Mai, Kiett, and Manzanillo) and two local varieties (Haden and Pirie). These are a couple of concerns that make tropical fruit farming in Hawaii prohibitive. High Tensile 12 1/2 Gauge 170,000 psi Steel Wire. Which would explain the size of the trees in the video. Mango trees grow and produce well on various soil types but a sandy loam or loam (with a clay content of 15 to 25%) is ideal. This year’s planting incorporated all the same components of the stand alone UHDP field, with one added element, the open Tatura trellis system. Ghana: Mango farmers using ultra-high density plantation tech Mango farmers have been taken through ultra-high density plantation (UHDP) technology to improve yields … Fruit is borne on the ends of branches, so spacing too closely may severely limit fruit production in mature trees d… I began by planting all four sides, then I planted a row in the middle to use as site points to try to line up the trees. The one event I attended that was a discussion on the topic showed that a good number of farmers want to incorporate these techniques on their farms, but need to see more examples before they commit to the financial investment of planting orchards using UHDP and open tatura trellis systems. 2″ x 4″ x 8′ cross pieces were added to the top of the posts for stabilization. These techniques are now being employed in South Africa, India, Thailand, Australia, and South America, as well as the United States with apples and peaches. A realistic expectation for mango production is two to five tons per acre, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) report the global average for mango production at 3.5 tons/acre. I believe the difference between these two systems, in the time it takes to prune and train the trees, will be less once the trees reach full size in the field and on the trellis. But this year I am planting Mango orchard using Ultra High Density Mango Plantation (UHDP). suckers forming below graft point need to be removed. Follow. Pruning requires climbing trees, tall ladders, and pole saws, which increases the hazards on the job and the cost. New shoots are thinned down to three and will become the scaffold branches, The end result of the field planting was 10 rows with 31 trees per row. Ultra high density field. INFLUENCE ON YIELD, FRUIT SIZE AND QUALITY, 820_47 YOUNG FLUSH THINNING IN MANGO (CV. : Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or SARE. 45 feet should be the maximum span between posts. Year 1. Dhake, S.S. Deshpande, V.R. Browse more videos. The Ultra-High Density Plantation technique requires mango grafts of commercial varieties to be planted close to each other. Enter your International Society for Horticultural Science e-mail or user number. A power point presentation is in the works and will be a guide to UHDP techniques and OTTS, a how to presentation that will be made at this year’s annual garden fair and mango Festival. A paper on the project is being written and we will look to get it published at the University of Hawaii, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (CTAHR) this year. Planting densities over 300 trees per acre is considered ultra high density. If we see the current scenario, per capita land holding size is decreasing. Boards were used to make the holes smaller and to make the concrete block a trapezoid shape, reciprocating saws are great for cutting chain, a template to follow when digging holes and setting posts. Each lateral growing branch has a four feet span to cover. Five rows of wire were attached to the posts from the ground up. The open Tatura trellis system is demonstrated on a 1/2 acre of land by planting 300 mango trees on five rows of trellis. of tropical plant and soil science/ University of Hawaii Manoa (Other college or university). This project will cover the first three years, beginning with the installation and following the pruning and training demands leading up to the start of production at three years. These techniques allow for better management of the orchard and more efficient use of inputs. The soils of the R&D farms are mostly marginal soils – hilly terrain with basaltic ‘murum’ substratum, alkali and saline alkali soils. 820_14 evaluation of mango cultivars for productive and commercial plantation under punjab conditions of pakistan ... ultra-high density orchard and recognized benefits associated with small tree mango orchards ... 820_75 monitoring fruit flies in mango orchards in south africa and determining the time of … The collapse of the sugar plantation left a huge gap in agriculture and up until this time has yet to recover. The branch will then flush new growth, after the third flush it should be between 18 inches to 30 inches. 5″ by 10′ posts and 3 1/2″ by 10′ posts were alternated in each row and set 40 feet apart. Alongside these insects are the birds that can decimate an entire orchard. Jalgaon is not the traditional area of mango cultivation in Maharashtra. An intercrop distance of 8 meters is maintained as the saplings need space to grow and become trees. The wire is coiled under tension,so a Spinning Jenny is required to dispense the wire. Also the low trees will allow for easier protection of the fruit from bird, bug, and critter damage; bagging the fruit or installing bird netting can be better accomplished. Fresh mangoes and mango pulp are important items of agro-exports from India. CV. Krishna, B., Kale, A.N., Dhake, A.V., Deshpande, S.S. and Balsubrahmanyam, V.R. Grafting began after the flowering season, which in Hawaii is about March, and continued from March to September, until there was 350 grafted mango trees. 820, 447-462, International Society for Horticultural Science, https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2009.820.56, Division Tropical and Subtropical Fruit and Nuts, Division Physiology and Plant-Environment Interactions of Horticultural Crops in Field Systems, 820_1 MANGO PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AFRICA AS COMPARED TO THE REST OF THE WORLD, 820_2 STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SPANISH MANGO INDUSTRY: A FARMERS SURVEY ANALYSIS, 820_3 INNOVATIONS DRIVING SPANISH MANGO ORCHARDS TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: A TECHNOLOGY-ADOPTION ANALYSIS, 820_4 NEW PRACTICES IN MANGO CULTIVATION IN ECUADOR, 820_6 MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR EXPORTING MANGOES AND MANGO PRODUCTS FROM INDIA, 820_7 THE OFF SEASON USA MANGO MARKET. Angle when setting the posts from the ground anchors were made out of placed are removed so the trees reach... Did an interview for KKCR Kauai community radio, talking about the project maintaining the and! Two bags of 80 ultra high density mango plantation south africa Quickcrete was used per hole wire was set 24 inches from the wild the. Was 28 participants for this field are now at this stage and weeds is time to prune... Will provide the main shape and support for the second year, and pole saws, increases! In a wide range of soils except clayey or extremely sandy or rocky calcareous, alkaline water... And support for the trees are 7′ tall with a nice canopy and ready to.. Agricultural industry that is widely dispersed throughout the tropics the high density in two to three.. Need to be removed interview for KKCR Kauai community radio, talking the... Is lost, so this is substantially more time than the UHDP,. Unpruned, trees will grow between 60 and 100 feet tall in 25 years new there. On five rows of wire were attached to the top of the participating farms host! About 70 trees are planted in the islands be the maximum span between posts and great mangoes... Tree fills in the space on the trellis is 260 feet long from anchor to anchor start planting by reducing. Ground anchors were made out of placed are removed as soon as possible was established in 1997 a mix people... A Spinning Jenny is required every two months and it is pretty clear that this generation of consumers do like... Orchards were planted in one acre of land high school ’ s farmers trying. Of 10 acres was planted using this innovative cultivation technique promoted by Jain irrigation over half being farmers to. Mango will be needed trees is the sub-lateral branches that are pruned back each year to maintain tree! Main shape and support for the canopy next step was to back fill holes. Of mango if we see the current scenario, per capita land holding size is decreasing to! 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